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Why does Florida have so many invasive species?

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FORT LAUDERDALE, Florida — I used to be informed the monkeys can be right here, though nothing about this spot appeared notably appropriate for wildlife. On a stifling morning in late July, I stood in a big parking zone close to Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport, about 40 miles north of Miami. Cars drove out and in. Planes handed low overhead. It reeked of gasoline.



The solely seen pure habitat was a sliver of forest, just some hundred ft vast, wedged between the paved lot, a area of oil tanks, and a freeway. I couldn’t discover monkeys within the lot, so I attempted my luck within the forest.

It turned out to be extra of a swamp. With every step, thick mud crept previous my ankles, making it troublesome to maneuver. A thorny underbrush etched puffy crimson strains into my naked legs.

Half an hour in, after I was about to show again in pursuit of air-con and a contemporary pair of socks, I heard a rustling overhead. I froze in place and regarded up. There, via the branches, I noticed the unmistakable face of a monkey.

A vervet monkey noticed in a small swamp close to Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport.

Benji Jones

To see unique animals in Florida, one might go to Disney’s Animal Kingdom, Busch Gardens, or Zoo Miami. Or they might simply step exterior.

The Sunshine State is completely brimming with nonnative species. More than 500 of them have been reported right here, which is more than in some other state, and plenty of of them are thought-about “invasive,” that means they hurt people or ecosystems. For most of their evolutionary historical past, these species have by no means set foot in Florida — they’ve by no means been close to a Publix, or Magic Kingdom, for that matter.

In the previous couple of many years, Florida has turn into an unmanaged zoo, an uncontrolled experiment. And every year, the choice of what to do with it will get tougher.

Benji Jones

The monkeys I noticed had been vervets, a species native to Africa. That afternoon, I adopted a troop from the swamp again to the parking zone, the place they lounged within the shade underneath a parking shuttle and ate up peanuts that somebody had put out. One of the monkeys was carrying an toddler. A distinct inhabitants of monkeys — a gaggle of rhesus macaques, a species native to Asia — lives in a state park north of Orlando. Some of these are infected with a form of herpes that may be lethal to people.

While monkeys are nonetheless considerably uncommon on this a part of the world, there’s one other group of nonnative animals that’s completely all over the place: the reptiles. The iguanas and pythons, geckos and basilisks, anoles and agamas. In South Florida, the bottom actually strikes with inexperienced and brown lizards. The bushes do, too; a few of them are home to color-changing chameleons native to Africa and the Middle East.

These creatures are unwelcome — and in some instances, despised. Exotic species are blamed for harming native ecosystems and damaging human property, so the state is attempting to eliminate them. It’s gone so far as turning eradication right into a sport. Florida’s Fish and Wildlife Commission (FWC), the state wildlife company, sponsors “rodeos,” occasions the place individuals compete to kill as lots of a sure invasive species as doable. At occasions, Florida’s battle in opposition to unique species turns violent. Videos on-line present individuals hunting lizards, frogs, and other species with blowguns, air rifles, and slingshots, all within the title of saving the surroundings.

For probably the most half, these efforts aren’t working. And it’s not clear what might. By reworking the pure surroundings, and masking it with buildings, lights, and lawns, we’ve created the proper place for a lot of of those unique species to breed and thrive. Meanwhile, nonnative animals proceed to leak into the surroundings from Florida’s gargantuan pet trade. Eradication has turn into a sport of whack-a-lizard.

That leaves Florida in a tricky place: Killing sprees are sometimes futile and even merciless, and but the state can’t merely let all launched species run rampant. Florida is a zoo. Are its keepers up for the job?


This query introduced me to Florida throughout a warmth wave in July, the place I went on a safari, of types — an invasive species safari. My intention was to journey across the state in quest of nonnative animals and within the course of, reply one other, extra basic query: Why are there so many unique creatures in Florida to begin with?

A serious benefit of this sort of safari is that you simply don’t must journey far to search out wildlife. One afternoon, I used to be walking round a gated neighborhood in a suburb of Miami. I handed a person unloading groceries from his trunk and one other resident walking his canine. Nothing stood out, aside from the large reptile mendacity in a pile of garden waste. It was an Argentine black and white tegu, a species native to South America that may develop almost 5 ft lengthy.

An Argentine black and white tegu, a big lizard native to South America.

Benji Jones

Like most of Florida’s nonnative reptiles and amphibians, tegus had been delivered to the state by the native pet commerce. The trade right here — made up of pet breeders and sellers — is among the largest in the country, and that is especially true for reptiles, as journalist Bryan Christy writes in his 2008 ebook The Lizard King. Florida is a spot the place you may drive into the nation and encounter snake farms off of grime roads.

Steven Tillis, a snake breeder and tutorial researcher in Florida, holding a blood python that he bred.

Benji Jones

Many scientists blame the pet commerce for releasing unique animals into Florida. Sometimes these introductions are an accident: Hurricanes and different storms can destroy reptile breeding amenities, permitting the animals to flee. In different situations, the issue is extra like carelessness. In South Florida, for instance, tegus, among the most popular reptile pets within the US, escaped from a breeding facility “where they were kept negligently in open cages,” Frank Mazzotti, a professor of ecology on the University of Florida, wrote within the ebook Exotic Amphibians and Reptiles of the United States.

Sometimes, nevertheless, nonnative species are simply intentionally put into the surroundings. In South Florida, there’s such a factor as “chameleon ranches’’ — out of doors spots the place individuals increase chameleons to promote. As against breeding these animals indoors, which will be difficult and costly, individuals will place them in bushes exterior, the place the animals will reproduce on their very own. Outside, chameleons are simpler to boost. They’re additionally simpler to lose. (Chameleons are famously good at hiding.)

One night time after darkish, I drove to a rural neighborhood in southwest Florida with a pair of reptile researchers who had agreed to assist me discover chameleons. We parked by a canal on a quiet highway with a couple of small houses. The waterway was lined with untidy clusters of palm bushes and bushes, and it was there that we looked for these long-tongued lizards.

Chameleon ranches are usually unmarked and considerably secretive. Putting nonnative animals outside is illegitimate and pet chameleons are expensive; ranchers don’t need individuals simply taking them without spending a dime. Fortunately, we had a powerful lead. One of the researchers had discovered sightings of chameleons right here on iNaturalist, an app the place nature fanatics report animal observations. It wasn’t clear that this was an lively ranch, however we had been sure there have been chameleons to search out.

Of the entire stops on my safari, chameleon ranches, I used to be informed, can be probably the most harmful. Although our proximity to the canal meant we had been probably on county property, persons are “very protective” of their chameleon spots, Natalie Claunch, a reptile researcher on the University of Florida, informed me earlier than my journey. (She was not one of many two researchers with me that night time.) I used to be suggested to put on a reflective vest, which could make me seem extra official.

Adding to this threat: You must seek for chameleons at night time. Although these animals expertly mix into leaves throughout the day, chameleon pores and skin seems pale underneath the cruel beam of a flashlight, making them a lot simpler to identify.

A Cuban tree frog perches on a palm tree department. They’re native to Cuba and a handful of different Caribbean islands.

Benji Jones

We almost instantly discovered one thing unique — not a chameleon, however a Cuban tree frog, which was perched on a palm tree department close to the canal. Cute, with large eyes and toes, it’s one of the vital ample nonnative species in Florida, with a croak that feels like a squeaky shoe.

We shined our flashlights on the underside of leaves and on the information of tall grasses. I walked via extra spiderwebs than I might depend. A screech owl flew by.

An japanese screech owl.

Benji Jones

Not lengthy into our search, I turned over a lifeless palm tree leaf that was nonetheless hooked up to the tree. There, tucked inside, was a veiled chameleon. Roughly a foot lengthy, with a fin-like protrusion atop its head, the lizard was shaded in muted greens, yellows, and oranges. The colours grew brighter as we drew nearer. The chameleon’s eyes — which famously can transfer independently from one another — had been striped like a circus tent.

I might simply see why somebody may need certainly one of these as a pet. They’re gorgeous, timid creatures.

A big veiled chameleon discovered clinging to the underside of a lifeless palm frond.

Benji Jones

A young veiled chameleon.

Benji Jones

The pet commerce introduces unique animals to Florida, but it surely’s the local weather that has allowed them to proliferate. Release an iguana in New York City and it gained’t make it via the winter; it’s too chilly. Let one go right here, in tropical Florida, and it would begin a household. All it takes for animals to get a foothold is an introduction or two.

Not solely pet breeders but in addition pet homeowners have helped inventory the state with exotics. Pet shops have been recognized to promote animals to individuals who don’t have the information or gear to take care of them. Green iguanas can develop over 5 ft lengthy. Burmese pythons can attain greater than 15 ft, they usually feed on mice, rats, and rabbits. Once these pets turn into too troublesome to take care of, individuals may launch them into the surroundings.

The state’s peculiar tradition probably additionally performs a task. There’s a way in Florida that you are able to do no matter you need and never be bothered, mentioned Adam Rosenblatt, a biologist on the University of North Florida. “There’s an attraction of people who want to live a lifestyle that maybe wouldn’t be acceptable everywhere else,” he mentioned. “Maybe that lifestyle involves having lots of large snakes in your house.”

Two different researchers informed me that the concept of “Florida man” is actual, referring to individuals within the state with behaviors or attitudes which might be odd and maybe irrational and will embody issues like throwing an alligator through a Wendy’s drive-through window or getting arrested with a monkey attached to their chest. Yet it’s exhausting to say whether or not this oddball tradition fuels the unfold of nonnative species.

Exotic animals have taken different routes into Florida, as properly. Those monkeys in Fort Lauderdale, for instance, descended from a gaggle of primates that escaped from a zoo and analysis facility many many years in the past. Cuban tree frogs, in the meantime, probably arrived as stowaways in transport crates. But irrespective of their path right here, a number of hundred unique species now dwell in Florida. Should the state kick them out?


Nonnative species have precipitated an immense quantity of destruction worldwide. Some of probably the most seen ecological harm is in Australia, the place they’re the primary cause of extinction. Australia’s invasive feral cats alone are largely accountable for the extinction of more than 20 mammals, together with the desert rat-kangaroo and a species of bandicoot.

Exotic animals can even hurt economies, whether or not they’re invasive mussels that clog pipes within the Great Lakes or bugs that damage crops globally. Between 1960 and 2020, invasive species cost the US about $1.2 trillion in losses, damages, and administration, in response to a study revealed final yr. Fire ants, “killer” bees, and a species of mosquito that spreads yellow fever, dengue fever, and chikungunya had been among the many most expensive, the research discovered. Worldwide, the financial cost of invasive species has at the very least quadrupled each decade since 1970, in response to a brand new report by the United Nations.

Bartoszek holds Luther, a male Burmese python that he tracks and makes use of as a sentinel to search out different pythons.

Benji Jones

Some of Florida’s unique animals are undoubtedly damaging, too.

Although they seem angelic, gliding via the ocean with delicate, fan-like fins, nonnative lionfish, for instance, threaten coral reefs by preying on native species. The state can be home to as many as 17 nonnative mosquitoes. Some of them unfold nasty ailments like dengue fever, together with the expensive one above.

Then there are the Burmese pythons. First launched from Asia by the pet commerce within the 1900s, these snakes are actually widespread in South Florida, the place they’re recognized to develop extraordinarily giant. In July, a person caught a record 19-foot Burmese python that weighed 125 kilos in South Florida.

Big snakes have large appetites, which doesn’t bode properly for Florida’s native species. Sharp declines within the sightings of raccoons, opossums, bobcats, and different frequent mammals have coincided with the unfold of Burmese pythons, one 2012 study discovered. Another study, revealed a couple of years later, discovered that these snakes are driving down the inhabitants of native marsh rabbits in Everglades National Park. That might have damaging knock-on results throughout the broader ecosystem, as predators like panthers rely on smaller mammals for meals.

Burmese pythons are “public enemy number one,” mentioned Ian Bartoszek, a wildlife biologist on the Conservancy of Southwest Florida who has been monitoring and eradicating pythons for greater than a decade. “Do not underestimate the Burmese python.”

Bartoszek and different researchers are assured that “Burms,” as locals name them, are harming Florida’s native ecosystem. Yet for a lot of of Florida’s different nonnative species, the story is much extra difficult.

The skeleton of a 14-foot feminine Burmese python.

Benji Jones


In a vacant lot by a canal in Cape Coral, a metropolis on Florida’s west coast, Ali Mulla held an antenna in entrance of his physique. He was monitoring certainly one of Florida’s largest lizards.

A graduate researcher on the University of South Florida, Mulla is finding out a species native to Africa known as the Nile monitor lizard, which arrived many years in the past by means of the pet commerce. It’s a semiaquatic reptile, with a protracted, forked tongue, that may attain greater than 6 feet from head to tail.

Ali Mulla listens to a receiver related to an antenna in quest of a Nile monitor lizard.

Like lots of Florida’s nonnative reptiles, Nile monitor lizards don’t have a terrific status. Some news reports say these animals are aggressive and terrorize households. Tabloids have suggested they’re able to consuming youngsters. FWC, in the meantime, says they pose a “very high” threat to native wildlife, resembling by outcompeting or consuming native species. The state additionally claims that monitor lizards harm human infrastructure like sidewalks and seawalls by digging burrows and that they pose a threat to human security.

Mulla, a former assistant biologist at FWC, is testing a few of these assumptions and attempting to reply different basic questions, resembling the place they dwell. To observe their conduct, he’s had radio-tracking units implanted in a few of the animals in Cape Coral. Those units ship indicators to a receiver that’s hooked up to the antenna.

I joined Mulla on a muggy afternoon throughout his area season to find a few these lizards. The concept is that as he will get nearer to the transmitter — nearer to the lizard — the receiver produces louder and louder beeps. These animals aren’t simply lumbering down metropolis streets; they’re skittish and extremely elusive, usually hiding underground and underwater. The receiver can be beeping loudly and there’d be nothing however fallen branches and a few inexperienced iguanas in entrance of us.

Later that afternoon, the receiver indicated that we had been on prime of a monitor. I crept towards the sting of the canal, attempting to keep away from breaking sticks beneath my ft, and there on the financial institution, I lastly noticed one: a small monitor, simply over 2 ft lengthy, with hanging yellow and black scales. Then, with a splash, it was gone.

A small Nile monitor lizard noticed by a canal in Cape Coral.

Courtesy of Ali Mulla

Courtesy of Ali Mulla

Although they’re known as “monsters” and “beasts” and compared to Godzilla, Nile screens will not be aggressive towards people and are very timid, Mulla mentioned. Meanwhile, there’s “no evidence to suggest that Nile monitors cause population-scale impacts on native species,” he mentioned. Data indicating that they outcompete native fauna and harm infrastructure by burrowing is equally absent from the scientific literature, he mentioned. (Mulla famous {that a} lack of proof shouldn’t be proof that these animals don’t hurt the surroundings.)

Arguing that nonnative lizards are unhealthy as a result of they dig burrows can even hurt the status of native animals, Mulla added. Native species, resembling gopher tortoises, an imperiled species, dig burrows, too, he mentioned. In truth, screens usually occupy burrows dug by different animals, although they’ll generally widen them.

In an announcement to Vox, FWC mentioned it “uses the best available science to determine which nonnative species could present a high risk to human health and safety, the economy, and/or the environment.” The company declined to touch upon the shortage of scientific proof linking Nile screens, inexperienced iguanas, and cane toads to environmental hurt.

In actuality, the ecological influence of Nile monitor lizards is unclear. The similar is true for a number of different nonnative species in Florida, resembling inexperienced iguanas and cane toads. Blamed for harming native fauna, these animals have equally unhealthy, or worse, reputations — and they’re usually handled accordingly.

“People love sharing stories with me about the disgusting things they do [to cane toads],” mentioned Melinda Schuman, a biologist who research cane toads on the Conservancy of Southwest Florida. She was reluctant to share examples with me, attributable to their ugly nature, however mentioned they embody capturing the animals with BB weapons and whacking them with shovels and golf golf equipment. (FWC encourages individuals to kill nonnative species humanely.)

A baseball-size cane toad within the grass by a well-lit parking zone in Naples.

Benji Jones

Native to Central and South America, cane toads do have some horrifying options. They’re toxic; when threatened, milky white toxins ooze from glands on their heads. That is usually a drawback for dogs. When curious pets chunk or lick these amphibians they will get sick and, on uncommon events, die.

But once more, it’s not clear how these toads are impacting Florida’s native fauna, Schuman mentioned. Wild animals within the state could know to keep away from cane toads as a result of they’ve advanced with one other native toad that additionally produces toxins (albeit in smaller portions). And whereas cane toads will eat just about every part, together with mice and small birds, they appear to largely devour invertebrates, she mentioned.

In a new study led by Schuman, researchers examined the abdomen contents of cane toads present in two golf course communities in Naples. The commonest invertebrates they consumed, she discovered, had been city pests, together with bugs like weevils, which feed on turf grass. (This makes numerous sense, as cane toads had been initially delivered to Florida to regulate agricultural pests, Schuman mentioned.)

Biologist Melinda Schuman appears via vials containing bugs and different animals discovered contained in the stomachs of cane toads in Naples.

Benji Jones

A vial containing a weevil, a typical pest.

Benji Jones

Ultimately, cane toads, iguanas, and plenty of different nonnative species in Florida appear to be extra of a nuisance to people than an actual blight on the surroundings. People understandably don’t need their pets to get sick. They don’t need iguanas gorging on vegetation of their gardens. (Residents additionally complain that the loud croaks of cane toads and Cuban tree frogs could make it exhausting to sleep.)

“We tend to blur the lines between what’s a human inconvenience versus what’s an ecological problem,” Mulla mentioned.

That doesn’t imply that the need to rid Florida of nonnative animals is rarely justified. But we must be clear once we’re eliminating them for people’ sake — for our comfort or our economies. Hunting down nonnative species shouldn’t be all the time some selfless act to guard the surroundings.


Florida, like every spot on Earth, won’t ever return to some historic model of itself. Over a whole lot of years, people have irreversibly reworked the surroundings. We’ve razed pure habitats and created new ones. It’s no shock that on this new ecosystem, there are new species; we’ve actually created novel ecological niches for them to occupy. But the query nonetheless stands: What will we do with all of them?

One concept is to easily embrace nonnative species. From a considerably fringe perspective, nonnative species really improve the state’s biodiversity, a typical measure of ecological well being. As far as scientists know, exotics have but to drive any native species extinct; they solely improve the overall variety of species in Florida ecosystems, in response to Ty Park, the proprietor of Iguanaland, a reptile zoo and breeding facility close to Sarasota.

“The world has changed,” Park mentioned. “We have to live with that.”

Park poses subsequent to his pet rhinoceros iguana, Donkey Kong, which he retains at Iguanaland.

Benji Jones

There’s additionally little proof that eliminating invasive species as soon as they’re established in Florida may even work, in response to Sean Doody, an invasive species professional and reptile researcher on the University of South Florida. “Eradicating or stopping the spread of tegus, iguanas, brown anoles, Cuban tree frogs, and Burmese pythons into suitable habitats with appropriate climates and resources is like trying to stop a hurricane,” Doody wrote in a recent ebook overview. “It cannot be done.”

Consider Florida’s python looking problem. During the extremely publicized competition, snake hunters compete to kill as many pythons as doable for a grand prize of $10,000. These types of competitions take away solely “modest numbers” of Burmese pythons, and “will not result in a measurable reduction in numbers,” Doody wrote in his overview. “What it will do is (falsely) convince the public that it is helping to save the native mammals in those parks.”

There is a flip facet. Even if nonnative animals will not be driving native wildlife extinct, they’re clearly altering ecosystems which might be already underneath siege. Burmese pythons are apex predators, and they should eat. Native toads can mistake cane toads for mates, doubtlessly screwing with their likelihood at replica. And in lots of instances, unique species are competing with native ones for meals and different sources. Why not err on the facet of warning and eliminate as lots of them as doable?

Four completely different nonnative lizards. Top left: Peter’s rock agama. Top proper: Brown basilisk. Bottom left: Brown anole. Bottom proper: Night anole.

Benji Jones

Perhaps one of the best method lies someplace within the center. Florida ought to measure the impacts of nonnative species and go from there. That sounds basic, however that’s not how administration works right this moment in Florida, Doody mentioned; the science to assist whether or not one thing is actually dangerous is missing. (Mazzotti, the University of Florida ecologist, makes the purpose that when a brand new invasive species is found, it pays to behave rapidly, even with out enough proof of hurt, so the animal doesn’t have time to unfold past management.)

Bartoszek’s work is an efficient instance of the place eradication efforts may repay. Instead of killing each python he encounters, his workforce tracks male snakes and makes use of them as sentinels. The males make them females which might be a lot bigger. Over the final decade, his workforce has eliminated greater than 31,000 kilos of snakes.

The pet commerce bears duty, too, because it stays a gas for the unfold of nonnative species. Reptile breeders I spoke to acknowledged that the trade has performed a task in introductions, however they are saying it’s extra cautious now. There’s a solution to do it proper, resembling breeding smaller reptiles that homeowners are much less prone to launch and in colours that make them a simple goal for predators, ought to they ever get out. (FWC has additionally banned the breeding and possession of various nonnative species together with tegus and inexperienced iguanas.)

What we shouldn’t do is rally the general public in opposition to nonnative animals like iguanas and tegus just because we don’t like them. This is at finest unhelpful and at worst merciless. Sure, it’s simple to demonize animals we discover icky and blame them for destroying the surroundings. But in actuality, it’s us; it’s people who’ve been wreaking ecological havoc, permitting these species to thrive within the first place. Animus towards nonnative species is commonly little greater than a distraction from our personal conduct.

The fact is these animals are right here due to people — as a result of we altered the surroundings in such a means that enables them to thrive. “They seem to want to live where we live,” Schuman mentioned of cane toads. “We provide everything they need to be comfortable. We bring bugs for them to eat. We turn on sprinklers at night. We’ve made it a utopia.”

On my four-day safari, during which I in the end noticed greater than 20 species, I additionally discovered that it’s doable to admire and respect nonnative species, whereas, on the similar time, acknowledging that they are often dangerous.

I visited a small park in Miami on my final day in Florida, the place I’d heard there have been unique parrots. I noticed the birds flying overhead earlier than I even exited my rental automotive. These weren’t simply any parrots however blue and gold macaws — majestic creatures, measuring 3 ft from head to tail, with colours so good they regarded synthetic.

A pair of blue and gold macaws.

Benji Jones

Benji Jones

I didn’t must journey to the jungles of Central or South America, their native vary, to see them; I simply needed to drive quarter-hour from my resort. They squawked and preened one another and fought over water. These animals will not be from right here, however that is their home.

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